Diversity and Abundance of Bees and Wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) in North Central BhutanTenzin, kinley.; Katel, Om.;
Bees and wasps (Aculeata: Hymenoptera) are group of insects which plays important roles in agriculture and are economically valuable species. The occurrence of these species depends on the climatic and non-climatic factors. This paper documents the bee and wasp diversity and their distribution based on the altitudinal gradient and land use in the Bumthang and Trongsa dzongkhags. The data were collected using opportunistic visual encounter and transect walk method over a period of eight months from September, 2015 to May, 2016. The research documented 12 species of bees and 22 species of wasps that belong to four and eight different sub-families respectively. Species diversity and richness were higher in the altitudinal range of 1501-2000 m asl. This study is expected to serve as a baseline data for future research and reflects on the importance of habitat conservation of these important taxa.
Keywordsabundance, bees, diversity, elevation, land use, richness, wasps
Archer, M.E. (1989). A key to the world species of the Vespinae (Hymenoptera). Research Monograph College of Ripon and York St. John.
Bingham, C.T. (1897). Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma, Hymenoptera, 1. Wasps and Bees, Taylor and Francis, London, 579pp.
Carpenter, J.M. and Nguyen, L.P.T. (2003). Keys to the genera of social wasps of South-East Asia. Entomological Science, 6, 183–192.
Carvalho, D.A., Presley, S.J. and Santos, G.M.M. (2014). Niche Overlap and Network Specialization of Flower-Visiting Bees in an Agricultural System. Neotropical Entomology, 43, 489–499. http://dx.doi: 10.1007/s13744-014-0239-4.
Chandra, K. (n.d). Insect Diversity of Sikkim, India. Zoological Survey of India.
Das, B.P. and Gupta, V.K. (1989). The Social Wasps of India and the Adjacent Countries (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). The Association for the Study of Oriental Insects, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.
Dorji, P., Klein, W. and Nidup, T. (2016). New record of Carpenter bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Xylocopinae) from Bhutan. Journal on New Biological Reports, 5(3), 106–113.
Dorji, P., Klein, W. and Nidup, T. (2016). Study of Paper wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae) of Bhutan. Bio Bulletin, 2 (1), 128-136.
Dorji, T. (2014). New records of dragonflies (Odonata) from Toebirongchhu sub watershed in Punakha District, Western Bhutan. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 2(4), 51-57.
Elpino-Campos, Á., Del-Claro, K. and Prezoto, F. (2007). Diversity of Social Wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) in Cerrado fragments of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Neotropical Entomology, 36(5), 685-692.
Goulet, H. and Huber, J.T. (1993). Hymenoptera of the world: an identification guide to families. Centre for Land and Biological Resources Research, Ottawa, Ontario: Canada.
Gupta, R.K. (2014). Taxonomy and Distribution of Different Honeybee Species. In: Gupta, R.K., Reybroeck, W., Van Veen, J.W. and Gupta, A. (Eds.), Beekeeping for Poverty Alleviation and Livelihood Security. pp.63-103. http://dx.doi: 10.1007/978-94-017-9199-1_2.
Hanson, P. and Gauld, I.D. (2000). Hymenoptera: Sawflies, Wasps, Ants and Bees. In: Nadkarini, N.M. and Wheelwright, N.T. (Edts), Monteverde: Ecology and Conservation of a Tropical Cloud Forest. pp.124 –128.
Hoehn, P., Tscharntke, T., Tylianakis, J.M. and Steffan-Dewenter, I. S. (2008). Functional group diversity of bee pollinators increases crop yield. The Royal Society, 275, 2283–2291. http://dx.doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.0405.
Loyola, R.D and Martins, R.P. (2006). Trap-nest occupation by solitary wasp sand bees (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) in a forest urban remnant. Neotropical Entomology, 35, 41–48.
Michener, C.D. (2007). The Bees of the World. (2nd edition). The Johns Hopkins University press, U.S.A. 972 pp.
Michener, C.D. (1990). Classification of the Apidae (Hymenoptera), The University of Kansas science bulletin, 54, 75–164.
Moisset, B. and Buchmann, S. (2011). Bee Basics: An Introduction to Our Native Bees. A USDA Forest Service and Pollinator Partnership Publication, United States Department of Agriculture.
Moron, D., Szentgyorgyi, H., Wantuch, M., Celary, W., Westphal, C., Settele, J. and Woyciechowski, M. (2008). Diversity of Wild Bees in Wet Meadows: Implication for Conservation. The Society of Wetland Scientists, 28(4), 975–983.
Nidup, T. and Dorji, P. (2016) The Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of Bhutan with a key to the Apis species. Bio Bulletin, 2(2), 01-07.
Nidup, T., Gyeltshen, T., Kumar, P.G., Klein, W. and Dorji, P. (2016). New records of petiolate potter wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) from Bhutan. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 8(12): 9467–9472. http://dx.doi.org/10.11609/jott.2718.104.22.16867-9472.
NSB. (2012). Annual Dzongkhag Statistics, Dzongkhag Administration, Bumthang. National Statistics Bureau, RGoB, Thimphu.
NSB. (2013). Statistical Yearbook of Bhutan (SYB). National Statistics Bureau, RGoB, Thimphu.
Oppold, M. (2005). Bee and wasp diversity and abundance along an elevation gradient, Monteverde, Costa Rica. Available from: http://digital.lib.usf.edu/SFS0001426/00001 (Accessed 2 February 2016).
Rajkumari, P., Sharmah, D., Rahman, A. and Patgiri, P. (2012). Diversity and Distribution Pattern of Hymenopteran Insects in Jorhat District, Assam, India. International Journal of Science and Research, 3(12), 1938-1941.
Raju, A.J.S and Rao, S.P. (2006). Nesting habits, floral resources and foraging ecology of large carpenter bees (Xylocopa latipes and Xylocopa pubescens) in India. Current Science, 90 (9), 1210-1217.
Ramakrishna and Alfred, J.R.B. (2006). Fauna of Arunachal Pradesh, State Fauna Series. Zoological Survey of India, 13(l), 396 pp.
Russo, L., Park, M., Gibbs, J. and Danforth, B. (2015). The challenge of accurately documenting bee species richness in agro-ecosystems: bee diversity in eastern apple orchards. Ecology and Evolution, 5(17): 3531–3540. http://dx.doi.10.1002/ece3.1582.
Somavilla, A., Oliveira, M.L. and Silveira, O.T. (2014) Diversity and aspects of the ecology of social wasps (Vespidae, Polistinae) in Central Amazonian “terra firme” forest. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 58(4), 349–355.
Spengler, A., Hartmann, P., Buchori, D. and Schulze, C.H. (2011) How island size and isolation affect bee and wasp ensembles on small tropical islands: a case study from Kepulauan Seribu, Indonesia. Journal of Biogeography, 38, 247–258.
Steffan-Dewenter, I. and Tscharntke, T. (2000). Resource overlap and possible competition between honey bees and wild bees in central Europe. Oecologia, 122, 288–296.
Sutherland, W.J. (ed.). (2006). Ecological Census Techniques: A Handbook. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Thapa, V.K. (2000). An Inventory of Nepal's Insects, Vol. III. IUCN Nepal, Kathmandu. 475 pp + xi.
Williams, P.H., Ito, M., Matsumura, T. and Kudo, I. (2010). The Bumblebee of the Nepal Himalaya ( Hymenoptera: Apidae). New Series, 66, 115-155.
Yamane, S. and Yamane, S.K. (1979) Polistine wasps from Nepal (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Insecta Matsurrurana, 15, 37pp.