Bhutan Journal of Natural Resources and Development

College of Natural Resources

Environmental Factors Affecting Agarwood (Aquilaria malaccensis Lamarck, 1783) Forests of Bhutan

Rabgay, Tenzin .;  Gurung, Dhan. ;  , Jambay.;  , Penjor.;  Thinley, Pema .;  Tshering, Bep .;  Dorji, Tshering.;  Tshering, Karma.;  Sitaula, Bishal.K;  Raut , Nani .; 



Aquilaria malaccensis Lam., commonly referred by its trade name Agarwood, is highly sought for perfume, incense and medicine; and is an endangered species. Even though it is found growing naturally in southern Bhutan, its distribution and ecology are sparsely known. So, this study aimed to understand the ecological requirements and model suitable habitats for the growth of A. malaccensis in the country. Purposive-non-probability sampling was adopted for the study in the natural A. malaccensis habitats in Jomotsangkha and Manas regions where Agarwood is found growing naturally. The plot size of 20 x 20 m for trees, 5 x 5 m for understory and 2 x 2 m for groundcover were used to collect vegetation data. Soil samples were collected from the centre of groundcover plots. A total of 168 plant species under 67 families were recorded from the entire study area. Lauraceae and Euphorbiaceae were found to be the most dominant and co-dominant families in the natural Agarwood stand. A cluster analysis using PC-ORD revealed that Agarwood prefers habitat with warm-moist evergreen broadleaved forest. The Pearson and Kendall correlation in NMS ordination showed the strongest correlation between Agarwood growth and mean annual rainfall (r = 0.90) followed by average soil pH of 6.15 (r = 0.82). However, the slope and aspect of the area exhibited a negative correlation with the growth and distribution of Agarwood (r = -0.46). An area of 6,490.8 km², which accounts to 16.9% of Bhutan, was found to be suitable for the growth of Agarwood. This could support Agarwood regeneration and plantation to conserve and protect the species from extinction in the wild.


Agarwood, Bhutan, ecology, distribution, habitat

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