Composition and Diversity Pattern of Climbers in Tropical Forest of Langchenphu, Jomotshangkha Wildlife SanctuaryNepal , Arjun .; Dorji, Ugyen .;
Since early civilization, climbers are well known and valued as non-wood forest products as well as medicinal plants. The study was conducted to determine the composition and diversity pattern of climbers along altitudinal gradient in the forest of Agoorthang and Jangsa Chiwog under Langchenphu Gewog. Three elevational transects with 10 x 10 m plots were assessed for presence of climbers. A total of 152 plant species from 30 plots were recorded. Asteraceae, Rosaceae, Fabacea and Viteacea were dominant families. Mean richness ranged from 0.78-1.28 between three elevational zones. Species richness and Shannon index were high in the lowest elevation and vice versa. One-way ANOVA showed a significant difference in climber richness and diversity at different elevations (p < .05). No significant relationship was found between the diversity indices of climbers and the diversity indices of associated species. Diversity of climbers was high in lower elevational zone where temperature was higher (23.89 0C). Exploitation of medicinal climbers is high in the study area. Conservation of climbers in the study area will be accelerated through attentions of proper management and monitoring process.
Keywordsaltitudinal gradient, climbers, diversity pattern, environmental parameters
Addo-Fordjour, P., Rahmad, Z.B. and Shahrul, A.J. (2012). Effects of human disturbance on liana community diversity and structure in a tropical rainforest, Malaysia: implication for conservation. Journal of Plant Ecology, 5(4): 391-399. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jpe/rts012.
Araujo, D. and Alves, M.J. (2010). Climbing plants of a fragmented area of lowland Atlantic Forest, Igarassu, Pernambuco (northeastern Brazil). Phytotaxa, 8(1): 1-24.
Benavides, A., Duque, A., Duivenvoorden, J., Vasco, A., Callejas, R.J.B. and Conservation. (2005). A first quantitative census of vascular epiphytes in rain forests of Colombian Amazonia. Biodiversity & Conservation, 14: 739–758.
Bhattarai, K.R. and Vetaas, O.R.J.(2003).Variation in plant species richness of different life forms along a subtropical elevation gradient in the Himalayas, east Nepal. Global Ecology Biogeography, 12(4): 327-340.
Chawla, A., Rajkumar, S., Singh, K., Lal, B., Singh, R. and Thukral, A.J. (2008). Plant species diversity along an altitudinal gradient of Bhabha Valley in western Himalaya. Journal of Mountain Science, 5(2): 157-177.
DOFPs. (2018). Jomotshangkha Wildlife Sanctuary. Retrieved from http://www.dofps.gov.bt/?page_id=725
Durigon, J., Durán, S.M. and Gianoli, E.J. (2013). Global distribution of root climbers is positively associated with precipitation and negatively associated with seasonality. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 29(4): 357-360.
Garbin, M.L., Carrijo, T.T., Sansevero, J.B.B., Sánchez-Tapia, A. and Scarano, F.R. (2012). Subordinate, not dominant, woody species promote the diversity of climbing plants, Perspectives in Plant Ecology. Evolution Systematics, 14(4): 257-265.
Gentry, A.H. (1991). Distribution and evolution of climbing plants. In Putz, F.E. and Mooney H.A. (Eds.), The Biology of Vines, 3-49. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511897658.003.
Ghollasimood, S., Faridah-Hanum, I., Nazre, M. and Kamziah, A.K. (2012). Abundance and Distribution of Climbers in a Coastal Hill Forest in Perak, Malaysia. Journal of Agricultural Science, 4(5): 245-254. DOI: 10.5539/jas.v4n5p245
Grierson, A.J.C. and Long, D.G. (1983-2001). Flora of Bhutan, including a record of plants from Sikkim. Royal Botanic Garden and Royal Government of Bhutan.
Homeier, J., Englert, F., Leuschner, C., Weigelt, P. and Unger, M. (2010). Factors controlling the abundance of lianas along an altitudinal transect of tropical forests in Ecuador. Forest Ecology Management, 259(8): 1399-1405.
Kumar, A., Prasad, S. and Singh, S.J.I.F. (2013). Climbers and lianas distribution in Jharkhand Forests, Indian Forester, 139(12): 1121-1125.
Mandal, G. and Joshi, S.P. (2014). Analysis of vegetation dynamics and phytodiversity from three dry deciduous forests of Doon Valley, Western Himalaya, India. Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity, 7(3): 292-304.
Mishra, R. (1968). Ecology Workbook. Calcutta, New Delhi: Oxford and IBH Publishing Company.
Muoghalu, J.I. and Okeesan, O.O. (2005). Climber species composition, abundance and relationship with trees in a Nigerian secondary forest. African Journal of Ecology, 43(3): 258-266.
Naidu, M.T., Kumar, O.A. and Venkaiah, M. (2014). Taxonomic diversity of lianas in tropical forests of Northern Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh, India. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 6(1): 59-65. DOI: 10.15835/nsb.6.1.9193
Newton, A. (2007). Forest ecology and conservation: a handbook of techniques: Oxford University Press on Demand.
Noltie, H.J. (1994). Flora of Bhutan, including a record of plants from Sikkim. (Vol.1): Royal Botanic Garden and the Royal Government of Bhutan.
Parthasarathy, N., Muthuramkumar, S. and Reddy, M.S. (2004). Patterns of liana diversity in tropical evergreen forests of peninsular India. Forest Ecology Management, 190(1): 15-31. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2003.10.003
Rahman, M.M., Begum, F., Nishat, A., Islam, K.K., Vacik, H.J.T. and Agroecosystems, S. (2009). Species richness of climbers in natural and successional stands of Madhupur Sal (Shorea robusta CF Gaertn) forest, Bangladesh. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 12(1):117-122.
Reddy, M.S., and Parthasarathy, N.J.(2003).Liana diversity and distribution in four tropical dry evergreen forests on the Coromandel coast of south India. Biodiversity Conservation,12(8): 1609-1627.
Santos, K.D., Kinoshita, L.S. and Rezende, A.A.J. (2009). Species composition of climbers in seasonal semideciduous forest fragments of Southeastern Brazil. Biota Neotropica, 9(4): 175-188.
Schmitt, C.B., Denich, M., Demissew, S., Friis, I. and Boehmer, H.J.J. (2010). Floristic diversity in fragmented Afromontane rainforests: Altitudinal variation and conservation importance. Applied Vegetation Science, 13(3): 291-304.
Schnitzer, S.A. and Bongers, F. (2002). The ecology of lianas and their role in forests. Trends in Ecology Evolution,17(5): 223-230.
Shameem, S., Soni, P. and Bhat, G. (2010). Comparative study of herb layer diversity in lower Dachigam National Park, Kashmir Himalaya, India. International Journal of Biodiversity Conservation, 2(10): 308-315.
Shannon, C.E. (1948). A Mathematical Theory of Communication. Bell System Technical Journal, 27(4).
Tukey, J.J.A.M.S. (1958). Bias and confidence in not quite large samples. Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 29(2): 614-614.
Wangda, P. and Ohsawa, M. (2006). Gradational forest change along the climatically dry valley slopes of Bhutan in the midst of humid eastern Himalaya. Plant Ecology, 186(1): 109-128.