Wild Vegetable Diversity and their Contribution to Household Income at Patshaling Gewog, Tsirang
Chhoeda and Ugyen Yangchen
Collection and use of wild vegetables have been a part of rural communities in Bhutan. Wild vegetables provide food as well as cash income for rural population and ensure food security. This study assessed the diversity of wild vegetables and their contribution to the household income at Patshaling Gewog, Tsirang Dzongkhag. Through simple random sampling 53 community members were identified to participate in the research. The semi-structured questionnaire interview and focus group discussions were used to collect the data from the respondents. About 32 species of wild vegetables were identified that are consumed by households, sold or used for medical purposes. Among the wild vegetables, mushrooms are perceived to be more important than cane, fern, damru, and orchid species due to their high value and scarcity. The respondents harvest wild vegetables almost throughout the year, except in November and December. According to the respondents, about 66% of the wild vegetables collected are used for medical purposes and 34% for household consumption. Wild vegetables are consumed to add diversity to the household diet and the excess are sold in the local market for cash income. Importance of wild vegetables needs to be emphasized and integrated into polices for conservation, food-security and agriculture.
Keywords: Diversity, household income, medicinal values, wild vegetables
Agrawal, A., Cashore, B., Miller, D., and Shepherd, G. (2012). Economic contributions of forest: Background paper prepared for the United Nations Forum on Forests. United Nations: Centre for Science and Environment.
Awe, F., Osadebe, C.O., Imoagene, E., Fashina, A.Y., Eniola, T.S., and Adeleke, E.O. (2011). Assessment of rural households' objectives for gathering non-timber forest products in Kogi State Nigeria. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 5 (2): 143-148.
Babalola, F.D. (2009). Prospects and challenges of production and marketing of non-timber forest products by rural farmers in South west Nigeria. Nigeria Academic Journal of Plant Science. 2 (2): 222-230.
Baruchua, Z. and Pretty, J. (2010). The roles and values of wild foods in agricultural system. Philosophical Transaction of the Royal Society B 365, 2913–2926. doi:10.1098/rstb.2010.0123.
Boa, E. (2004). Wild edible fungi: a global overview of their use and importance to people (Non-Wood Forest Products). FAO, Rome, Italy.
Dankelman, I. (2010). Gender and climate change: An introduction. Earth Scan Limited, UK.
Duba, S., Ghimiray, M., and Gurung, T.R. (2007). Promoting organic farming in Bhutan: A review of policy, implementation and constraints. Council for RNR Research of Bhutan, Ministry of Agriculture. Royal Government of Bhutan.
Dutta, U. (2012). Wild vegetables collected by the local communities from the Chirang Reserve Forest of BTAD, Assam. International Journal of Science and Advanced Technolog. 2(4).
Grivetti, L.E. and Ogle, B.M. (2000). Value of traditional foods in meeting macro- and micronutrient needs: the wild plant connection. Nutrition Research Review 13, 31–46. doi: 10.1079/095442200108728990.
Joshi, N., and Siwakoti, M. (2013). Wild vegetables used by local community of Makawanpur district and their contribution to food security and income generation. Nepal Journal of Science and Technology. 13 (1): 59-66. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/njst.v13i1.7442.
Ju, Y., Zhuo, J., Liu, B. and Long, C. (2013). Eating from the wild: diversity of wild edible plants used by Tibetans in Shangri-la region, Yunnan, China. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 9:28. doi: 10.1186/1746-4269-9-28
Kajembe, G.J., Mwenduwa, M.I., and Ramadhani, H. (2000). Potential of non-wood forest products in household food security in Tanzania. The role of gender based local knowledge. Gender, Biodiversity and Local Knowledge System, Tanzania.
Mata, M., Penjor, D., and Pradhan, S. (2010). Fungi of Bhutan. National Mushroom Centre, Department of Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture and Forests. Royal Government of Bhutan.
Matsushima, K., Minami, M., Nemoto, K., Pradhan, N.K., Thapa, L., and Delma, D. (2008). Edible wild plants of Bhutan and their associated traditional knowledge. Graduate School of Agriculture, Shinshu University, Japan.
Namgyel, P. (1996). Beyond timber-what value of the forest?: A rapid appraisal study on non-timber forest products in the Nahi geog, Wangduephodrang, Western Bhutan. Bhutan: Forest research centre in colloboration with Bhutan-German integrated Forest Managment Project.
Odhav, B., Beekrum, S., Akula, U., and Baijnath, H. (2007). Preliminary assessment of nutritional value of traditional leafy vegetables in Kwazulu-Natal. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 20: 430-435. doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2006.04.015.
Orech, F.O., Aagaard, H.J., and Friis, H. (2007). Ethnoecology of traditional leafy vegetables of the Luo people of Bondo district, Western Kenya. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition. 58 (7): 522-530.doi:10.1080/09637480701331163.
Rathore, M. (2009). Nutrient content of important fruit trees from arid zone of Rajasthan. Journal of Horticulture and Forestry. 1(7): 103 –108.
RGoB. (2006). Forest Resources Development Division. Department of Forest, Ministry of Agriculture, Royal Government of Bhutan.
Sahoo, U.K., Lalremruata, J., Jeceelee, J.H., and Lalliankhuma, H. (2010). Utilization of non-timber forest products by the tribal around Dampa tiger reserve in Mizoram. Department of Forest, Mizoram University, India.
Subba, K. J. (1996). Overview of non wood forest products of Bhutan. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Bangkok, Thailand.
Vansickle, J. J. (2007). Marketing strategies for vegetable growers. IFAS Extenison Chapter 19. University of Florida.